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Penman was the major text generation project established by William C. Mann in the early 1980s. Within this project were developed resources such as the very large Nigel grammar of English and several approaches to text planning that came to define some of the standard approaches in the field.


  1. Matthiessen, C. M. I. M., & Bateman, J. A. (1991). Text generation and systemic-functional linguistics: experiences from English and Japanese. London and New York: Frances Pinter Publishers and St. Martin's Press. Bib
  2. Mann, W. C., & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. 1985. Demonstration of the Nigel Text Generation Computer Program. Bib
  3. Hovy, E. H., Lavid, J., Maier, E., Mittal, V., & Paris, C. 1992. Employing Knowledge Resources in a New Text Planner Architecture. Bib
  4. Hovy, E. H. (1993). Automated discourse generation using discourse relations. Artificial Intelligence, 63(1-2), 341. Bib
  5. Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (1990). Semantic interfaces in text generation. Paper presented at 13th. International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING-90), Helsinki, Finland. Bib
  6. Mann, W. C., & Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. (1983). NIGEL: A Systemic Grammar for Text Generation (No. ISI/RR-85-105). Information Sciences Institute. Bib
  7. Kasper, R. T. (1989). A flexible interface for linking applications to PENMAN's sentence generator. Paper presented at Proceedings of the DARPA Workshop on Speech and Natural Language, San Mateo, CA. Bib
  8. Matthiessen, C. M. I. M. 1988. Semantics for a systemic grammar: the chooser and inquiry framework. Bib
Facts about PENMANRDF feed
DescriptionPortable systemic generator for domain-independent large-scale text generation  +
Ended1992  +
FrameworkSFG  +
LanguageEnglish  +
Started1981  +
WorkerMann  +, Matthiessen  +, Hovy  +, Kasper  +, Bateman  +, Whitney  +, Albano  +, Poulton  +, and O'Donnell  +
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